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with Heather Gilmore, MSW, LLMSW, BCBA

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

Telehealth Services for Applied Behavior Analysis

In some areas of the united states, especially in rural states or counties, there is a shortage of behavior analysts who can provide applied behavior analysis services. Telemedicine is a service that would allow for more children with autism spectrum disorder to obtain intervention and support. Telemedicine, also known as telehealth, would allow children with autism spectrum disorder to access the medically-necessary ABA services they need to provide the best opportunity for growth and development and to prevent further decline or stagnation in development.

Traveling to a center is also prohibitive for some beneficiaries due to transportation difficulties as well as living in a rural community which is associated with limited resources related to ABA services and transportation. Supervision may be provided via telemedicine services for children and families who are in need of home-based services and are not able to attend a clinic setting. Additionally, an distance supervisor could provide telemedicine to assist with providing services to children who may not otherwise be able to access services in a timely fashion and who may not be eligible for services outside the county in which they reside.


Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

Tips for Supervision Services as a BCBA


BCBA's (Board Certified Behavior Analysts) often find themselves in situations where they will be supervising others including supervising the services provided by BCaBA's (Assistant Board Certified Behavior Analysts) or those of RBT's (Registered Behavior Technicians) or maybe those of students in the process of becoming credentialed as a BCBA.

Here are some steps BCBA's should consider when providing supervision of others.


Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

Teaching Echoics to Children with Autism

Some children with autism spectrum disorder do not imitate vocalizations made by others. This skill is known as echoics. Some children will mand (request items they want) but have difficulty developing echoics. Other children may babble with spontaneous sounds or word approximations but struggle with echoics.

To increase vocalizations, Carbone (2012, PPT) reports that the following interventions have been found effective:


ADHD/ADD

ABC’s of Behavior (Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence)

An ABC Chart is a direct observation tool that can be used to collect information about the events that are occurring within a student's environment. "A" refers to the antecedent, or the event or activity that immediately precedes a problem behavior. The "B" refers to observed behavior, and "C" refers to the consequence, or the event that immediately follows a response. (Reference: Special Connections)

ABC data is a form of data collection which can assist with functional behavior assessments. The data collected can help to create a picture of the possible function of the behavior (escape, access, attention, automatic reinforcement). This is an important part of creating an effective intervention to increase appropriate skills and decreasing maladaptive behaviors.


Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

Registered Behavior Technician (RBT) Study Topics: Skill Acquisition (Part 1)

As mentioned in the previous RBT Study Topics posts, "The Registered Behavior TechnicianTM (RBT®) is a paraprofessional who practices under the close, ongoing supervision of a BCBA, BCaBA, or FL-CBA. The RBT is primarily responsible for the direct implementation of behavior-analytic services. The RBT does not design intervention or assessment plans." (https://bacb.com/rbt/)

The RBT Task list is a document which describes concepts that an RBT must be familiar with in order to provide applied behavior analysis services.

There are many topics on the RBT task list including: Measurement, Assessment, Skill Acquisition, Behavior Reduction, Documentation and Reporting, and Professional Conduct and Scope of Practice. (https://bacb.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/161019-RBT-task-list-english.pdf)


Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

Registered Behavior Technician (RBT) Study Topics: Assessment


"The Registered Behavior TechnicianTM (RBT®) is a paraprofessional who practices under the close, ongoing supervision of a BCBA, BCaBA, or FL-CBA. The RBT is primarily responsible for the direct implementation of behavior-analytic services. The RBT does not design intervention or assessment plans." (https://bacb.com/rbt/)

The RBT Task list is a document that describes various concepts that a Registered Behavior Technician must be familiar with in order to perform their services in a quality and effective manner.

There are many topics on the RBT task list including: Measurement, Assessment, Skill Acquisition, Behavior Reduction, Documentation and Reporting, and Professional Conduct and Scope of Practice. (https://bacb.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/161019-RBT-task-list-english.pdf)


Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

Registered Behavior Technician (RBT) Study Topics: Measurement

"The Registered Behavior TechnicianTM (RBT®) is a paraprofessional who practices under the close, ongoing supervision of a BCBA, BCaBA, or FL-CBA. The RBT is primarily responsible for the direct implementation of behavior-analytic services. The RBT does not design intervention or assessment plans." (https://bacb.com/rbt/)

The RBT Task list is a document that describes various concepts that a Registered Behavior Technician must be familiar with in order to perform their services in a quality and effective manner.

There are many topics on the RBT task list including: Measurement, Assessment, Skill Acquisition, Behavior Reduction, Documentation and Reporting, and Professional Conduct and Scope of Practice. (https://bacb.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/161019-RBT-task-list-english.pdf)


ADHD/ADD

Research Study Shows How to Keep Kids On Task with Less Supervision


Staying on task and maintaining attention and focus is a struggle for many children, especially for youth diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or even autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Jessel, Ingvarsson, Whipple, and Kirk (2017) conducted a research study titled "Increasing on-task behavior of an adolescent with autism using momentary differential reinforcement." This study was published in the Journal of Behavioral Interventions.

To summarize their study, here is an excerpt from their article:


Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

Behavior Analysts in Rural Communities

Serving rural communities in any human services field can have it's challenges. Of course, some of the top difficulties include longer travel times for staff (compared to urban areas), mileage and travel expenses, sometimes lower financial resources for many clients (compared to more affluent families who may life in cities), fewer resources for clients to access, fewer providers, and sometimes difficulty getting a high enough caseload to justify the staff positions or, on the other hand, having too high of caseloads which make it difficult to manage with quality services.

In 2013, Mason, Perales, and Gallegos published an article titled, "Community-Based Development of Behavior Analysts." The abstract of the article is as follows:


ADHD/ADD

Reducing Problem Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement

Problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement is likely to need intervention that is different than that of problem behavior maintained by social reinforcement.

Saini, Greer, et. al. (2016) note that noncontingent reinforcement and response blocking are two interventions that have been shown to reduce problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement.
"NCR involves the use of a time-based schedule to deliver stimuli that compete with the automatic reinforcer produced by problem behavior (e.g., Hagopian & Toole, 2009), whereas blocking consists of physical intervention to prevent problem behavior. Blocking can prevent access to the automatic reinforcer that maintains the response (i.e., extinction; Smith, Russo, & Le,1999) or can function as punishment (Lerman & Iwata, 1999)" (Saini, Greer, et. al., 2016).